First, I would like to express my warmest thanks to Stephan Kraus and Can Karadogan, who assisted me with the English translation considerably.
Alireza Borhani disputerer på mobil kommunikasjon
I would especially like to thank Frank Laue for performing the computer experiments in the book and for making the graphical plots, which decisively improved the vividness and simplified the comprehension of the text. Sincerely, I would like to thank Alberto Diaz Guerrero and Qi Yao for reviewing most parts of the manuscript and for giving me numerous suggestions that have helped me to shape the book into its present form. Experts agree that today we are just at the beginning of a global development, which will increase considerably during the next years.
Trying to find the factors responsible for this development, one immediately discovers a broad range of reasons. Certainly, the liberalization of the telecommunication services, the opening and deregulation of the European markets, the topping of frequency ranges around and over 1 GHz, improved modu- lation and coding techniques, as well as impressive progress in the semiconductor technology e.
The beginning of this turbulent development now can be traced to more than 40 years ago. The first generation mobile radio systems developed at that time were entirely based on analog technique. They were strictly limited in their capacity of subscribers and their accessibility. The first mobile radio network in Germany was in service between and It was randomly named A-net and was still based on manual switching.
Direct dialling was at first possible with the B-net, introduced in Nevertheless, the calling party had to know where the called party was located and, moreover, the capacity limit of 27 subscribers was reached fairly quickly. The B-net was taken out of service on the 31st of December Automatic localization of the mobile subscriber and passing on to the next cell was at first possible with the cellular C-net introduced in It operates at a frequency range of MHz and has a Germany-wide accessibility with a capacity of subscribers.
Second generation mobile radio systems are characterized by digitalization of the networks. The D-net, brought into service in , is based on the GSM standard. It operates at a frequency range of MHz and offers all subscribers a Europe-wide coverage. Mainly, these two networks only differ in their respective frequency range.
Estimates say the amount of subscribers using mobile telephones will in Europe alone grow from 92 million at present to million at the end of In consequence, it is expected that in Europe the number of employees in this branch will grow from at present to 1. The originally European GSM standard has in the meantime become a worldwide mobile communication standard that has been accepted by countries at the end of The network operators altogether ran GSM networks with over But only one year later at the end of , the amount of GSM networks had increased to with million subscribers.
The DECT standard allows subscribers moving at a fair pace to use cordless telephones at a maximum range of about m. With UMTS, in Europe one is aiming at integrating the various services offered by second generation mobile radio systems into one universal system [Nie92].
An individual subscriber can then be called at any time, from any place car, train, aircraft, etc. This concept is aimed to cover the whole area with mobile terminals, from fixed optical fibre networks over optical fibre connected base stations to the indoor area. From future satellite communication it will be expected besides supplying areas with weak infrastructure — that mobile communication systems can be realized for global usage.
A coverage area at 1. An Iridium satellite telephone cost 5 DM in April , and the price for a call was, depending on the location, settled at 5 to 20 DM per minute. Despite the high prices for equipment and calls, it is estimated that in the next ten years about 60 million customers worldwide will buy satellite telephones.
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The aim of this is integration of broadband mobile services, which will make it necessary to extend the mobile communication to frequency ranges up to GHz. Before the introduction of each newly developed mobile communication systems a large number of theoretical and experimental investigations have to be made. These help to answer open questions, e. Also included are estimates of environmental and health risks that almost inevitably exist when mass-market technologies are introduced and that are only to a certain extent tolerated by a public becoming more and more critical.
Another boundary condition growing in importance during the development of new transmission techniques is often the demand for compatibility with existing systems. To solve the technical problems related to these boundary conditions, it is necessary to have a firm knowledge of the specific characteristics of the mobile radio channel. The term mobile radio channel in this context is the physical medium that is used to send the signal from the transmitter to the receiver [Pro95]. However, when the channel is modelled, the characteristics of the transmitting and the receiving antenna are in general included in the channel model.
The basic characteristics of mobile radio channels are explained later. The thermal noise is not taken into consideration in the following and has to be added separately to the output signal of the mobile radio channel, if necessary. In fact, the received waves are a superposition of waves coming from all directions due to reflection, diffraction, and scattering caused by buildings, trees, and other obstacles.
This effect is known as multipath propagation. A typical scenario for the terrestrial mobile radio channel is shown in Figure 1. Due to the multipath propagation, the received signal consists of an infinite sum of attenuated, delayed, and phase-shifted replicas of the transmitted signal, each influencing each other. Depending on the phase of each partial wave, the superposition can be constructive or destructive. This effect is called the impulse dispersion. The value of the impulse dispersion depends on the propagation delay differences and the amplitude relations of the partial waves. We will see later on that multipath propagation in a frequency domain expresses itself in the non-ideal frequency response of the transfer function of the mobile radio channel.
As a consequence, the channel distorts the frequency response characteristic of the transmitted signal. The distortions caused by multipath propagation are linear and have to be compensated for on the receiver side, for example, by an equalizer. Figure 1.
Besides the multipath propagation, also the Doppler effect has a negative influence on the transmission characteristics of the mobile radio channel. Due to the movement of the mobile unit, the Doppler effect causes a frequency shift of each of the partial waves. The angle of arrival a n , which is defined by the direction of arrival of the nth incident wave and the direction of motion of the mobile unit as shown in Figure 1. Due to the Doppler effect, the spectrum of the transmitted signal undergoes a frequency expansion during transmission.
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This effect is called the frequency dispersion. The value of the frequency dispersion mainly depends on the maximum Doppler frequency and the amplitudes of the received partial waves. In the time domain, the Doppler effect implicates that the impulse response of the channel becomes time- variant. One can easily show that mobile radio channels fulfil the principle of superposition [Opp75, Lue90] and therefore are linear systems.
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Skip to Main Content. First published: 25 January About this book All relevant components of a mobile radio system, from digital modulation techniques over channel coding through to network aspects, are determined by the propagation characteristics of the channel.
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Therefore, a precise knowledge of mobile radio channels is crucial for the development, evaluation and test of current and future mobile radio communication systems. This volume deals with the modelling, analysis, and simulation of mobile fading channels and provides a fundamental understanding of many issues that are currently being investigated in the area of mobile fading channel modelling. The author strongly emphasises the detailed derivation of the presented channel models and conveys a high degree of mathematical unity to the reader.
Telecommunication engineers, computer scientists, and physicists will all find this text both informative and instructive.
Correspondence to Batool Talha. Reprints and Permissions. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Abstract This paper deals with the modeling and analysis of narrowband multiple-input multiple-output MIMO mobile-to-mobile M2M fading channels in relay-based cooperative networks.