The Polish commander of one Jewish unit, Waclaw Micuta , described them as some of the best fighters, always at the front line. It is estimated that over 2, Polish Jews, some as well known as Marek Edelman or Icchak Cukierman , and several dozen Greek,  Hungarian or even German Jews freed by Armia Krajowa from Gesiowka concentration camp in Warsaw, men and women, took part in combat against Nazis during Warsaw Uprising. Warsaw was razed to the ground by the Germans and more than , Poles were sent to labor or concentration camps.
On 17 January , the Soviet Army entered a destroyed and nearly uninhabited Warsaw. Some Jews were found hiding in the ruins in the Polish part of the city see: Wladyslaw Szpilman. The fate of the Warsaw Ghetto was similar to that of the other ghettos in which Jews were concentrated. The mass deportation of Jews from ghettos to these camps, such as happened at the Warsaw Ghetto, soon followed, and more than 1. The ghetto had two sections, divided by the Biala River.
The Germans also sometimes used Jews in forced-labor projects outside the ghetto. During the deportations, hundreds of Jews, mainly those deemed too weak or sick to travel, were killed. German forces and local police auxiliaries surrounded the ghetto and began to round up Jews systematically for deportation to the Treblinka extermination camp. Approximately 7, Jews were held in a central transit camp in the city before deportation to Treblinka.
Those deemed fit to work were sent to the Majdanek camp. In Majdanek, after another screening for ability to work, they were transported to the Poniatowa, Blizyn, or Auschwitz camps. Those deemed too weak to work were murdered at Majdanek. More than 1, Jewish children were sent first to the Theresienstadt ghetto in Bohemia , and then to Auschwitz-Birkenau , where they were killed. The fighting in isolated pockets of resistance lasted for several days, but the defence was broken almost instantly. The estimates of Polish Jews before the war vary from slightly under 3 million to almost 3.
The number of Polish Jews who survived the Holocaust is difficult to ascertain. Majority of Polish Jewish survivors were individuals who were able to find refugee in the territories of Soviet Union that were not overrun by Germans and thus safe from the Holocaust. It is estimated that between , and , Polish Jews survived the war, out of which between 50, and , were survivors from occupied Poland, and the remainder, survivors who made it abroad mostly to the Soviet Union.
Following the Soviet annexation of over half of Poland at the onset of World War II, all Polish nationals including Jews were declared by Moscow to have become Soviet nationals regardless of birth. Some of the soldiers married women with the Soviet citizenship, others agreed to paper marriages.
Some 20,—40, Jews were repatriated from Germany and other countries. Following World War II Poland became a satellite state of the Soviet Union , with its eastern regions annexed to the Union, and its western borders expanded to include formerly German territories east of the Oder and Neisse rivers. Due to the border shifts, some Polish Jews found that their homes were now in the Soviet Union; in other cases the returning survivors were German Jews whose homes were now under Polish jurisdiction. Jewish communities and Jewish life as it had existed was gone, and Jews who somehow survived the Holocaust often discovered that their homes had been looted or destroyed.
Some returning Jews were met with antisemitic bias in Polish employment and education administrations. Post-war labor certificates contained markings distinguishing Jews from non-Jews. The Jewish community in Szczecin reported a lengthy report of complaints regarding job discrimination. Although Jewish schools were created in the few towns containing a relatively large Jewish population, many Jewish children were enrolled in Polish state schools.
Some state schools, as in the town of Otwock, forbade Jewish children to enroll. In the state schools that did allow Jewish children, there were numerous accounts of beatings and persecution targeting these children. It occurred amid a period of violence and anarchy across the country, caused by lawlessness and anti-communist resistance against the Soviet-backed communist takeover of Poland.
The best-known case is the Kielce pogrom of 4 July ,  in which thirty-seven Jews and two Poles were murdered. Following the investigation, the local commander of Milicja Obywatelska was found guilty of inaction. In a number of other instances, returning Jews still met with threats, violence, and murder from their Polish neighbors, occasionally in a deliberate and organized manner. People of the community frequently had knowledge of these murders and turned a blind eye or held no sympathy for the victims.
Jewish communities responded to this violence by reporting the violence to the Ministry of Public Administration, but were granted little assistance. Several causes led to the anti-Jewish violence of One cause was traditional Christian anti-semitism; the pogrom in Cracow 11 August and in Kielce followed accusations of ritual murder. Another cause was the gentile Polish hostility to the Communist takeover.
Yet another reason for Polish violence towards Jews stemmed from the fear that survivors would recover their property. After the war ended, Poland's Communist government enacted a broad program of nationalization and land reform, taking over large numbers of properties, both Polish- and Jewish-owned.
Many of the properties that were previously owned or by Jews were taken over by others during the war. Attempting to reclaim an occupied property often put the claimant at a risk of physical harm and even death. In general, restitution was easier for larger organizations or well connected individuals,  and the process was also abused by criminal gangs.
Facing violence and a difficult and expensive legal process,   many returnees eventually decided to leave the country rather than attempt reclamation. Following the fall of the Soviet Union, a law was passed that allowed the Catholic Church to reclaim its properties, which it did with great success. Decades later, reclaiming pre-war property would lead to a number of controversies, and the matter is still debated by media and scholars as of late s.
For a variety of reasons, vast majority of returning Jewish survivors left Poland soon after the war ended. Some left because of the persecution they faced in postwar Poland,  and because they did not want to live where their family members had been murdered, and instead have arranged to live with relatives or friends in different western democracies. Others wanted to go to British Mandate of Palestine soon to be the new state of Israel , especially after General Marian Spychalski signed a decree allowing Jews to leave Poland without visas or exit permits.
Between and , ,—, Jews left Poland. Their departure was largely organized by the Zionist activists including Adolf Berman and Icchak Cukierman , under the umbrella of a semi-clandestine Berihah "Flight" organization. The camp trained 7, soldiers who then traveled to Palestine to fight for Israel. The boot-camp existed until the end of A second wave of Jewish emigration 50, took place during the liberalization of the Communist regime between and After 's Six-Day War , in which the Soviet Union supported the Arab side, the Polish communist party adopted an anti-Jewish course of action which in the years — provoked the last mass migration of Jews from Poland.
The Bund took part in the post-war elections of on a common ticket with the non-communist Polish Socialist Party PPS and gained its first and only parliamentary seat in its Polish history, plus several seats in municipal councils. Eleven independent political Jewish parties, of which eight were legal, existed until their dissolution during — Following liberalization after Joseph Stalin 's death, in this —59 period, 50, Jews emigrated to Israel.
Some Polish Communists of Jewish descent actively participated in the establishment of the communist regime in the People's Republic of Poland between and Solomon Morel a member of the Ministry of Public Security of Poland and commandant of the Stalinist era Zgoda labour camp , fled Poland for Israel in to escape prosecution. In , following the Six-Day War between Israel and the Arab states, Poland's Communist government, following the Soviet lead, broke off diplomatic relations with Israel and launched an antisemitic campaign under the guise of "anti-Zionism".
However, the campaign did not resonate well with the Polish public, as most Poles saw similarities between Israel's fight for survival and Poland's past struggles for independence. Many Poles also felt pride in the success of the Israeli military, which was dominated by Polish Jews.
The vast majority of the 40, Jews in Poland by the late s were completely assimilated into the broader society. The state-sponsored "anti-Zionist" campaign resulted in the removal of Jews from the Polish United Worker's Party and from teaching positions in schools and universities.
In — under economic, political and secret police pressure, over 14, Polish Jews chose to leave Poland and relinquish their Polish citizenship. However, only about 4, actually went there; most settled throughout Europe and in the United States. The leaders of the Communist party tried to stifle the ongoing protests and unrest by scapegoating the Jews. At the same time there was an ongoing power struggle within the party itself and the antisemitic campaign was used by one faction against another.
The so-called "Partisan" faction blamed the Jews who had held office during the Stalinist period for the excesses that had occurred, but the end result was that most of the remaining Polish Jews, regardless of their background or political affiliation, were targeted by the communist authorities. There were several outcomes of the March events. The campaign damaged Poland's reputation abroad, particularly in the U. Many Polish intellectuals, however, were disgusted at the promotion of official antisemitism and opposed the campaign.
Some of the people who emigrated to the West at this time founded organizations which encouraged anti-Communist opposition inside Poland. First attempts to improve Polish-Israeli relations began in the mids. Poland was the first of the Eastern Bloc countries to restore diplomatic relations with Israel after these have been broken off right after the Six-Day's War. During the late s some Jewish activists were engaged in the anti-Communist opposition groups. By the time of the fall of Communism in Poland in , only 5,—10, Jews remained in the country, many of them preferring to conceal their Jewish origin.
With the fall of communism in Poland, Jewish cultural, social, and religious life has been undergoing a revival. Many historical issues, especially related to World War II and the —89 period, suppressed by Communist censorship, have been re-evaluated and publicly discussed like the Jedwabne pogrom, the Koniuchy massacre , the Kielce pogrom , the Auschwitz cross , and Polish-Jewish wartime relations in general.
There are two rabbis serving the Polish Jewish community, several Jewish schools and associated summer camps as well as several periodical and book series sponsored by the above foundations. Jewish studies programs are offered at major universities, such as Warsaw University and the Jagiellonian University. Its purpose is the promotion and organization of Jewish religious and cultural activities in Polish communities. Before the war, the Yeshiva Chachmei in Lublin was Europe's largest. In it was renovated, dedicated and reopened thanks to the efforts and endowments by Polish Jewry.
Warsaw has an active synagogue, Beit Warszawa , affiliated with the Liberal-Progressive stream of Judaism. There are also several Jewish publications although most of them are in Polish. These include Midrasz , Dos Jidische Wort which is bilingual , as well as a youth journal Jidele and "Sztendlach" for young children. Active institutions include the Jewish Historical Institute, the E.
Former extermination camps of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Majdanek and Treblinka are open to visitors. At Treblinka there is a monument built out of many shards of broken stone, as well as a mausoluem dedicated to those who perished there. A small mound of human ashes commemorates the , victims of the Majdanek camp who were killed there by the Nazis. Candelabras, chandeliers, a menorah and a ner tamid were found and can now be seen at the Auschwitz Jewish Center.
The Warsaw Ghetto Memorial was unveiled on 19 April —the fifth anniversary of the outbreak of the Warsaw ghetto Uprising. It was constructed out of bronze and granite that the Nazis used for a monument honoring German victory over Poland and it was designed by Natan Rappaport. The Memorial is located where the Warsaw Ghetto used to be, at the site of one command bunker of the Jewish Combat Organization. A memorial to the victims of the Kielce Pogrom of , where a mob murdered more than 40 Jews who returned to the city after the Holocaust, was unveiled in The funds for the memorial came from the city itself and from the U.
Commission for the Preservation of America's Heritage Abroad. Polish authors and scholars have published many works about history of Jews in Poland. Recent scholarship has primarily focused on three topics: post-war anti-Semitism; emigration and the creation of the State of Israel, and the restitution of property. There have been a number of Holocaust remembrance activities in Poland in recent years. The United States Department of State documents that:. The synagogue was the first communal property in the country to be returned to the Jewish community under the law allowing for restitution of Jewish communal property.
The March of the Living is an annual event in April held since to commemorate the victims of the Holocaust. It takes place from Auschwitz to Birkenau and is attended by many people from Israel, Poland and other countries. According to the Polish Moses Schorr Centre and other Polish sources, however, this may represent an undercount of the actual number of Jews living in Poland, since many are not religious.
Poland is currently easing the way for Jews who left Poland during the Communist organized massive expulsion of to re-obtain their citizenship. In the Polish census, 7, Polish citizens declared their nationality as "Jewish," a big increase from just 1, during the previous census. According to the Moses Schorr Centre , there are , Jews living in Poland who don't actively practice Judaism and do not list "Jewish" as their nationality.
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